Christopher Columbus was born in Felanitx (Mallorca) in 1460. He was the illegitimate son of Charles, Prince of Viana (the brotherof King Ferdinand the Catholic) and his mother was the Mallorcan Margalida Colom. On the 12 October 1492 he named the first island that he discovered San Salvador, giving it the same name as the San Salvador Sanctuary in Felantx, which he knew during his childhood. On his third voyage to the New World, along the coast of Venezuela, in 1498, Colom christened various geographical locations using his vernacular language Mallorquín. He named the island “Margalida” (Isla Margarita) after his mother.
DAILY NEWSPAPER “ULTIMA HORA“ Wednesday, 27th July, 2016
Frank Scherer, German anthropologist and doctor of philosophy from the University of York, Toronto, Canada. Author of various books concentrating on psychoanalysis.
“Most of the documents verifying that Columbus came from Genova are Falsified.”
“On the basis of such a universal theory like the psychoanalysis I can assure the Majorcan theory is the right one, the others are not.”
From that memorable date of October 12, 1492, in which the New World was discovered, until nowadays, many theories have been presented about the origin of Christopher Columbus. The obscurity of
its origins has led historians to make the most diverse interpretations and many countries claim the paternity of the Admiral.
The discoverer's theory of Majorcan origin has not been documented until the pass century in which different illustrious historians have tried to prove that the true discoverer of America was not the Genoese Cristóforo Colombo, but the Mallorcan Cristóbal Colom.
The first of them was undoubtedly the Peruvian Luis Ulloa who dedicated himself to the subject from the year 1922 resigning the position of director of the National Library of Lima, when the Government of Peru entrusted to him a special mission of study in the Archives and Libraries of Europe.
Ulloa, in a book published in 1927: "Cristófor Colom fou Català, the veritable genesis of the discovery" defines the Admiral as a nobleman born in the Catalan speaking countries whose real surname was "Colom", and in his name, on the other hand , As well as in the shield, symbols and signature are signs of Catalan.
As a native of Felanitx has been described by Ricardo Carreras Valls, Renato Llanas de Niubó, Bartolomé Arán, Suau Alabern, José María Millás. Juan Carlos Cerdá, Sevillian Manuel López Flores, Luis Schoch and Pereira de Castro, and the Venezuelan Brother Nectario María, who was a Cultural Attaché. He was also the son of Don Carlos, Príncipe de Viana and Margarita Colom. Of the Venezuelan Embassy in Spain. Member of four Academies of History of Hispanic America and two of Europe, and author of a series of works of historical character.
Columbus, throughout his life, always kept a silent eye on his homeland, that is, on the lands that saw him born and of which he could never speak for reasons of state. And so on October 12, 1492, he named San Salvador the first island he discovered, giving it the name of the Sanctuary of San Salvador de Felanitx, which he knew during his childhood and which, as is well known, was built in 1349 .
On October 28, in Cuba, Columbus also named San Salvador to a river and a port that, in his opinion, understood that it was frequented by ships of the Gran Can. As will be seen, as before, the Admiral did not mention anywhere the origin of the aforementioned name of San Salvador.
On January 9, 1493 the Admiral wrote in his Diary that "he came to a point which he called Punta Roxa, which is just east of MonteCristi." This Punta Roxa located on the North Coast of the Dominican Republic has its namesake on the North Coast of Mallorca. It is located between the Port of Sóller and La Calobra.
Also to the South of the Dominican Republic, located between Azua and Bani, is Punta Salinas, which very possibly baptized with this name Bartolomé Colom, brother of the Discoverer, since we have a record that was inhabiting this area for a long time. In Mallorca this place name is located to the south of the island. It is known as Cabo Salinas. Figure already registered with this denomination in the famous nautical chart that the cartographer Mallorquin Angelino Dulcert drew in 1339. Today conserved in the National Library of Paris.
While making his third voyage to America, with the name of his mother "Margalida" (Margarita in Castilian), the Admiral appointed an island near the Venezuelan coast. The cartographer Juan de la Cosa transcribed this Mallorcan word in the nautical chart he drew in the Port of Santa Maria, in the year 1500. It is currently preserved in the Naval Museum of Madrid. It came from Columbus's map of the new lands discovered in 1498 and, as Samuel Eliot Morison asserts, "a witness in the suits of 1514 said that all subsequent discoverers of the mainland were guided by the letters that the Admiral had made , Because he alone made letters of all that he discovered. "In the archives of the Palace of Liria, of the Dukes of Alba in Madrid, several autograph letters of Columbus are kept in which he signs" El Almirant "in Mallorcan and not" El Admiral "in Spanish.
In the archives of the Kingdom of Mallorca, in 1482, an interesting document is kept in which Miguel de Pax is mentioned Vice-Admiral, a fact that proves that the mentioned word was already used in the Island in the fifteenth century.
In relation to the real name of the Discoverer there is evidence that it was neither Colombo nor Colón, but Colom, with a final "m", as it is written in the Catalan countries. It is to be taken into consideration that the Admiral of the Indies has not been able to prove documentary ever that during all the time that he lived in Portugal and in Castile he was called not once Columbus.
Joao de Barros, chronicler of King John II of Portugal calls him in 1484 Christovam Colom. The same thing happens in the letter of the Count Borromeo of 1494; In the colophon of the German edition of the Letter of Columbus, printed in Strasbourg, in 1497, in which the translation was made from the Catalan; In the facsimiles of the headings of the ten editions of the Admiral's letter, published in various European countries-and three in Italy-between 1493 and 1497.
To all these testimonies we can still attach a letter addressed to "The King and the Queen" which is contained in the "Book of Privileges" of the Discoverer, which consists, as in many others of the same, the name "Colom".
Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo in his "General and Natural History of the Indies" also always calls him "Colom".
In Castile, in 1487, the future Admiral received several stipends freed by the accounting and paid by the treasury of the Kings. The entries of all these sums appear in the books of the treasurer Francisco González of Seville, in the name of Cristóbal Colomo, which evidences that at this time, Columbus had adopted this name, at least for official documents.
In the same way he is also called the Duke of Medinaceli, in a letter from Gogolludo wrote on March 19, 1493 to the Great Cardinal Don Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza.
Fernando Colón and Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas said that the discoverer "used to be called before he reached the state that Christopher Columbus came from Terrarubra, and so did his brother Bartolomé Colón."
This interesting definition that indicates its place of origin has been what has made it possible to know the exact place of his birth and where he spent his childhood.
It is documented that already in 1346 there was in Felanitx an extensive estate called Alquería Roja, a name that translated into Latin is transformed into Terra Rubra. He is currently called Son Ramonet. Although Doña María Maimó, the current owner of Son Ramonet, says she knows from her grandfather that this estate and Son Colom were formerly in the same hand. For lack of documents that prove it in the middle of century XV does not know to whom belonged this mentioned property. However, it is known that in 1431, Juan Colom, grandfather of the Admiral, was owner of a farm that was located near the royal road that from Felanitx led to Manacor.
Several statements made by Columbus himself are in agreement that he was born in Mallorca in 1460, and that he began to sail from a very young age. On December 21, 1492, Columbus wrote in his diary that he had "spent twenty-three years in the sea, without leaving the time to be counted, and I saw all the Levant and West."
The Admiral in a letter to the Kings from Cadiz or Seville in 1501 states: "Very high Kings: from very young age I entered the sea sailing and I have continued until today".
The Mallorcan sailor also declared that he came "to serve twenty-eight years" (to the Catholic Monarchs). This statement is found in the letter he wrote to the Monarchs from Jamaica on July 7, 1503.
These last statements prove: First, when Columbus states that he has been twenty-three years at sea, he justifies that he started sailing in 1469, that is, when he was nine years old. Secondly, it should be noted that navigation was always his trade. Finally he declares that he came to serve at the age of twenty-eight to the Kings, and proclaims that he began serving Don Fernando and Doña Isabel in 1488.
It is known that several historians have considered the admiring liar incorrigible for not harmonizing his assertions with the Genoese thesis. But as we can see, El Descubridor can never be the Genoese Cristóforo Colombo who was born in 1451, practiced cloth weaver at least until 1473, as several researchers say.
The son of the Discoverer, Ferdinand, in his work "History of the Admiral," manifests referring to the origin of his father, who "wanted his country and origin to be less certain and known."
Later, in another page Fernando adds: "Returning to the conditions and people of their parents, I say that, although they were worthy people, having been reduced to need and poverty because of the wars and parties of Lombardy, I can not find in what Form lived or where they lived, even though the same Admiral says in a letter that his treatment and that of his elders was always by sea.
In this same work he also tells us that "the Admiral was a man of letters ... and that he did not spend time in manual things or in mechanical arts." Then he adds: "I will put an end to this chapter with what he wrote in his letter to the now of Prince Don Juan of Castile, with these words:" I am not the first Admiral of my family. "
The key to the puzzle:If Christopher Columbus "wanted his country and origin to be less certain and known," deep causes should motivate him. The Admiral, the son of a noble father and of a plebeian mother, as the royal laws expressed at that time, could not participate in the inheritance of his father. But as made law, made the trap, by the procedure of hiding its origins, in Castile were granted great royal trades.
This fact has precedents. Don Alfonso V the Magnanimous, King of Aragon and Sicily, between 1394 and 1458, and of Napolés from 1442, had three recognized natural children. One of them was Don Ferdinand of Calabria, who bore the title of Nobility of Duke and of which the King never mentioned the name of his mother. His progenitor in his Testament, on June 26, 1457, appointed him heir to the Kingdom of Naples.
Regarding this matter, Professor Manzano in his work Cristóbal Colón, Seven decisive years of his life (1485-1492), reports: "The legal precept Alfonsino absolutely prohibits the extramarital unions of barragania of ..." illustrious people "( Kings, princes, dukes, marquises, counts, etc.), with vile women, plebeyas, both in the case that they themselves were of inferior condition as in which their ancestors had been. And the reason for such a prohibition is none other than opportunity and clearly expresses the law: for it would not be worthy or decorous thing for the blood of the nobles to mingle with that of such vile women. To such an extent the law attempts to avoid such noble unions with a lower status as that of their ancestors. And the reason for such a prohibition is none other than opportunity and clearly expresses the law: for it would not be worthy or decorous thing for the blood of the nobles to mingle with that of such vile women. To such an extent the law attempts to avoid such unions of nobles constituted in high dignities with vile women, who in no case regard them as natural, but spurious, that is, as children in "woman" ... Is given to many, which is why they can not participate in the inheritance of the parents, nor these, if they do not want, are obliged to raise them.
Many were the steps that the unfortunate Ferdinand went through Italy, looking for the place where his father was born, but of course, without any result.
In short, Fernando Colón affirms that in his family there was another Admiral and that by bad luck and, because of the wars, had come to great need and poverty. According to the opinion of several historians, he was not mistaken, since José María Quadrado in his book "Forensics and Citizens" asserting that in Felanitx (Mallorca) in the middle of the fifteenth century, Christopher Columbus' grandfather, Juan Colom, Demanded the "responsibility for his refugee children, and there was almost to dissipate his property in donations to the veguer, scribe and dance."
Juan Colom, besides being the father of Margarita (mother of the Admiral of the Indies), was also of fugitives who exiled themselves in Provence, kingdom of King Renato de Anjou, whom the forensic mutineers intended to deliver the Kingdom of Mallorca.
These sons of Juan Colom were two: one was called Christopher Columbus, as his nephew, and the other was the one known by the name of Guillaume de Casenove Coullon, Admiral-privateer who served King Renato, and who was known in Italy by Colombo and in Spain by Columbus.
Between 1469 and 1476, Christopher Columbus was sailing with them, a period in which the future Discoverer learned astronomy and maritime science.
In the General Register of the Seal of the Archives of Simancas two valuable documents are preserved in which the corsair Columbus, captain of the King of France, is mentioned.
The first one dated in Seville, on January 30, 1478, says: "Letter of mark and reprisal in favor of Juan López de la Riaza, neighbor of Guetaria, whose ship was taken and sacked by the Bretons of Bristol and delivered more Late to Columbus, captain of the King of France, from whom the said had to be rescued."
The second document, dated Vitoria, dated November 4, 1483, describes: "For López de Chinchilla to report on the expenses and damages caused to Juan Ochoa de Elguero, shipowner of Bilbao, in the service of his Highnesses, one of which was the loss of a nation that Columbus took, Captain of the King of France."
What poor Ferdinand never really knew was his father's birthplace, and so, after his unsuccessful personal investigations of Genoa and other parts of Italy, he tried to follow them through Catalan lands, where he found many difficulties, not because there had been Erased its family origin, but due to the Royal Decree with which King Carlos V, in the year 1523 forbade him to continue his studies and search for data in Catalonia. Why did he forbid it ?, What were the motivations that forced the Monarch to make such a determination ?, What explanation does the aforementioned determination have if Columbus was a Genoese?
Conclusion: The prohibition was marked by the interest that the Crown had in preventing the disclosure of the secret, for being said theme Reason of State.
To take into consideration is also the fact that Columbus was not only a born navigator, but also a great cartographer, as Samuel Eliot Morison relates, he was "well prepared to make maps of his own discoveries, and no doubt registered every new island in A blank letter as he sailed along. Twice in the Second Journey we find references to his record of even the smallest islands in a letter he was preparing. "
The great difference that exists between the Genoese fable and the facts that are known of the real life of Cristóbal Columbus, clearly shines in his personality, because both its authoritarian aspect as well as its character and literary affections, show that it was neither of origin Plebeian, nor of Hebrew descent.
The noble lineage of the Admiral where it began to be noticed was in Portugal. All this is derived as we will try to prove, the fact of being the son of Don Carlos, Prince of Viana, which was well known in this country, because in 1459, during his confinement in the island of Mallorca, Portuguese ambassador Gabriel Lorenzo, who was the bearer of the bases by which the marriage of Don Carlos was arranged with the Infanta Catalina, sister of the King of Portugal. The death of the Prince of Viana, in September of 1461, so affected to the Infanta Lusitana that retired to the convent of Santa Clara of Coimbra, for life.
Thus we see Columbus, in 1478 or 1479 marry, probably in Lisbon, with Filipa Moniz Perestrello who belonged to a family of the highest Portuguese nobility. Philippa was noble on both sides, and was even related to the Archbishop of Lisbon.
While residing in this country, the noble navigator was related and was well received by the Lusitanian Court. This allowed him even to copy the famous letter he had sent on 25 June 1474 to the mathematician and physicist of Florence, Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli, to the canon Fernando Martins, who was loaned him by the King of Portugal who had it in his archive.
In 1483, when his plans for discovery were already defined, he proposed to Don Juan II to discover great lands rich in gold, silver and precious stones, via the west to Auster or Mediodia. But in return, he asked the King of Portugal for the following: "First, that he be honored by a knight of golden spurs," as a second condition, "that one might call himself Christopher Columbus, he and his successors," and, "To be given the title of Admiral of the Ocean."
There is no doubt that no one until then, nor afterwards, had presented to Don Juan II such magnificent petitions that are only justified in a personage of royal stock, as he was, son of Don Carlos, Prince of Viana and Margarita Colom . The future Admiral asked for more than reasonable: he asked for patches of sovereignty because he felt like a king's son.
Later, at the beginning of March of 1493, when returning from his first trip to the Indies, the Admiral was received by the King of Portugal with the honors due to its high rank.
The prestigious American historian Washington Irving tells us: "As you approach the Royal residence. The chief knights of the royal committee went to meet him, and they conducted him with great pomp to the palace. The reception that made him the monarch was worthy of an enlightened prince. He ordered him to take a seat in his presence; A distinction dispensed only to persons of the royal blood, and after many congratulations by the glorious result of his enterprise, assured him that, when Portugal held that it could be of service to its sovereigns or to it, it was entirely at its command.
While Columbus was at the Court, Don Juan II sent the Catholic Kings and the Duke of Medinaceli a quick messenger to let them know the unexpected and happy news. Given its geographical situation, the good news came earlier to Cogolludo (Guadalajara) than to Barcelona; That was how Don Luis was the first to know that Columbus had returned from his first trip and had discovered everything he promised.
On March 19, from Cogolludo, the Duke of Medinaceli wrote a letter to his uncle the Great Cardinal Don Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza giving an account of that arrival. In a fragment of it we can read: "Most Reverend Lord. I do not know whether your ladyship knows how I had in my house a long time to Christopher Colomo, who came from Portugal and wanted to go to the King of France to undertake the search of the Indies with his favor and help; And I wanted to try and send it from the port, which had a good rig with three or four caravels, which did not demand any more, but as I saw it was this company for the Queen, Our Lady, write it to her Highness from Rota and she answered me To send it to him. "
It is recalled that in 1485, rejected his project in Portugal, the future Discoverer left this country accompanied by his son Diego, and headed towards the Port of Palos. After his passage through
the Monastery of La Rábida, where he found a home and school for his son, the noble sailor made his way to the dominions of the Duke of Medina Sidonia. There he proposed his plans, but for reasons
that are unknown were not accepted. His project again frustrated, Columbus turned his gaze to the Duke of Medinaceli, who at that time resided in the Port of Santa Maria.
Don Luis de la Cerda enthusiastically welcomed the project of Columbus without having to consult with anyone, and gave him accommodation in his Ducal residence as stated in his letter recently quoted. Salvador de Madariaga asserts that in the palace of the Duke, Columbus was treated and protected with the honors and preeminences that were then dispensed to people of noble rank.
This support which Christopher Columbus received in the duchy of Medinaceli is not acceptable to a Genoese merchant, but a son of Don Carlos, given that Don Luis de la Cerda had married Doña Ana de Navarra and Aragon, daughter Natural of the Prince of Viana and Dona Maria de Armendáriz, fact that proves that the future Admiral was brother-in-law of the Duke.
In the Archive of the house of Medinaceli, House of Pilate in Seville, several documents are preserved that prove these assertions. One of these documents describes the following: "Don Luis de la Cerda, V ° Count of Medinaceli, Lord of the Port of Santa Maria and the Villa of Cogolludo and his land ... married three times. The first with Doña Catalina Laso de Mendoza.
He married the second time with Doña Ana de Navarra and Aragón, daughter of Prince Don Carlos, firstborn of Navarre, and of Doña Maria de Almendáriz, of whom he had for his only daughter to Doña Leonor de la Cerda and Navarra. "
In January of 1486 the future Admiral went to Cordova carrying some letters of the Duke to the confessor of the Queen. In this same city, at the end of April or beginning of May, the first interview took place between Columbus and his uncles the Catholic Kings. It is possible to mention that from this date was helped and protected by the Monarchs, a fact that shows that Christopher Columbus was not Cristóforo Colombo.
While the navigator resided in Córdoba, he met Beatriz Enriquez de Harana, who was to be the mother of his second son, Fernando, who was born in August 1488, and, as we can see, instead of giving it the name of Doménico, Name of the father of the Genoese Colombo, was given the one of the King Ferdinand.
Before the discovery of America and during the time he lived in Castile, the future Admiral instead of seeing him surrounded by Genoese merchants, as we are painted by some historians, we see him protected by high personalities. Alonso de Quintanilla, Accountant of the Kings, Cardinal Don Pedro González de Mendoza, known by the nickname "Third King"; Fray Diego de Deza, Professor of Theology at the University of Salamanca and also tutor to Prince Juan, heir to the throne, Andrés Cabrera and his wife Beatriz Fernández de Bobadilla, Marquess and Marquesa de Moya.
In the House of Aragon also had influential friends, among whom were Gabriel Sanchez, treasurer, and Luis de Santángel, clerk of ration. The Santángel was one of the richest families of Aragon, of Jewish origin converted to Christianity in 1430. Luis de Santángel that financed the first trip of Columbus, with a loan to the Crown of 1,140,000 maravedís, had been born in Valencia and was Son of Luis de Santángel, el Viejo, who maintained continuous and excellent relations with the Kings Alfonso V El Magnánimo and Juan II.
On 14 April 1976, a marriage between Galceran de Santángel, Valencia, son of Luis, merchant, and Graciosa, a maid, daughter of Pere Pardo, deceased, merchant, who contributed a dowry of 2,000 livres. Los Pardo was the most important merchant family in Mallorca, the most active and the largest capital investing in maritime trade and insurance. In 1450 Gabriel Pardo secured to Nicolau Centurione, merchant Genoese, 1000 pounds in a trip to Pera.
In 1470 the very Luis de Santángel who financed the first voyage of Columbus resided in Mallorca, where his friend Arnau Descós lived, a personage of illustrious family, lover of the letters and celebrated lulista. Both met while studying in Naples. On November 21, 1470, Luis de Santángel, a minor, merchant of Valencia now residing in Mallorca, named Gabriel Plegamans, merchant, by patron of his whaler to go to Sicily. We also find in Mallorca the Treasurer of the Crown of Aragon Gabriel Sánchez.
Christopher Columbus, on his return from his first trip, wrote a letter telling of his discoveries to his friends Luis de Santángel and Gabriel Sánchez. The missives are dated February 15, 1493.
On April 17, 1492, an important document of incalculable historical value was signed in Santa Fe de la Vega de Granada. In this document known as "Capitulations of Santa Fe", all the conditions established between Columbus and the Crown were established, by means of which the company of the Discovery would be carried out.
The first condition recorded by the document is that "Your Highnesses as Lords who are of the said Oceanic Seas now render to the said gift Christoval Colon his Admiral in all those islands and firm lands which by their hand or industry were discovered or won in the Said Mares Oceanas, during his life, and after death, to his heirs and successors from one to another in perpetuity with all those pre-eminences and prerogatives belonging to such office, secondly Don Alfonso Enriquez, quondam, Admiral Major of Castile. "
The second condition imposed by the noble navigator is that "your Highnesses make to the said Don Cristobal his Visorey and Governor General in all said firm lands and islands that as said is the discover or win in the said seas."
From this contract of Christopher Columbus with the Catholic Monarchs, some historians have come to say that they never saw or will see another similar, given that it is a treatise on the unknown, and in which the navigator goes demanding and the Crown acceding. And so it was as these relevant honors and coveted trades, the monarch's nephew of blow and blow was raised to the highest cusps of Castilian grandeur.
In relation to the request of the future Discoverer of the position of Viceroy and Governor General in perpetuity of how many lands he discovered traveling to the West, Federico Udina Martorell affirms that this evidences that he knew the political structure of the Crown of Aragon, since the position of Viceroy , Was little known in Castile, and that of Governor General, with this denomination of General did not exist in the Crown of Castile.
It should be noted that, at the time, and according to the Catalan institutions, the heir of the Crown assumed the government of Catalonia as the Viceroy. This position corresponded to the Prince of Viana, since Don Alfonso V, in Naples, on June 26, 1457, had declared him crown prince and successor after his father, the kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia, Mallorca, Sardinia, Sicily and Of the Principality of Catalonia. This fact reveals to us the reason why Christopher Columbus vindicated with so much zeal to the Kings the position of Viceroy, seems with the purpose of being equal in certain honors and preeminences to his father the Prince of Viana.
Also in April of 1492, that is to say, several months before the discovery of America, the Kings already recognized documentarymente the nobility of Columbus.
In the archives of the Crown of Aragon, in Barcelona, are preserved along with the Chancellor's copy of the "Capitulations of Santa Fe", two passwords that also in copy of Foreign Ministry issued Don Fernando and Doña Isabel in favor of the Admiral and Viceroy so that No one would impede the voyage which the Monarchs intended to carry out in the service of the Monarchs.
The first of these documents in which they declare him noble is the passport of Columbus. In a fragment of it we can read: "We sent the NOBLE Christopher Columbus, with three caravels by the Ocean Sea to the Indies." Given in Granada, April 16, 1492. I the King. I the Queen. The King and Queen ordered this to me, Juan de Coloma. "
The second safe-conduct for the discovery of the New World is a letter from the Catholic Monarchs to the Catay Sovereign. In this document it is said: "For this reason we have decided to send to our NOBLE Captain Christopher Columbus, donor of the present.
From Granada, April 30, 1492. I the King. I the Queen. Coloma Secretary. "
After the return of their first voyage, at the end of April 1493 the Kings received in Barcelona the Admiral surrounded by the whole Court, headed by Prince Juan.
Said Salvador de Madariaga that the "Kings astonished their courtiers by giving him two singular honors, hitherto reserved for the greatest of the great: they rose to receive him and when he had kissed their hands they offered him a footstool." Subsequently, the King made him ride beside him, with Prince John to the other, a privilege hitherto reserved for royal blood.
In the same city, Colon obtained a coat of arms that carried in its quarters the castle of Castilla, the lion of Leon, five islands, which represent the Balearic Islands and, according to the real document of May of 1493, "in The other picture lowered to the left hand the weapons of yours that you used to have. " It is evident that the Admiral was endeavoring to make it clear that he had already had "guns," that is, nobility.
This right to carry in their arms a castle and a lion placed Columbus to the same level of the Kings, considering that the lion and the castle were the royal arnas.
This concession was followed by others: on May 28 the Kings solemnly confirmed their titles, honors and privileges defined in the capitulations of Santa Fe, the same day given the royal letters to appoint the people elected by him for the government of The new lands discovered and, in addition to all this, was also given the royal seal. In short, these concessions placed in the hands of the Admiral almost regal powers both on the sea and on the land.
Faced with this accumulation of solid arguments, many have been the historians who have not hesitated to affirm that the Discoverer was of Noble Alcurnia. These include: Luis Ulloa, Ricardo Carreras Valls, Marcelo Gaya and Delrue, Renato Llanas de Niubó, J. Suau Alabern, Ricardo Sanz, Margarita del Olmo, Emilio Cuenca, Caius Parellada, etc.